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Life in Freshwater

Succession is concerned with community development over time. Find out more in our general section on Succession

4th Stage of Hydrosere - Competition

The number of new species will be slowing down now. In fact the amount of free space is very limited and the chances are there will be few signs of open water. The pond is becoming choked with plants. The initial colonisers like the lilies may have disappeared through competition with reedmace.

A pond choked with reedmace
A pond choked with reedmace

By now the pond is little more than a swamp with damp ground around it. Young trees like alder and willow may be developing and competing with the reeds. Many of the sedges are quite small and will have been out-competed already.

With the reduction in the variety of plant communities the variety of animals will likewise be in decline. The pond diversity has peaked and is now diminishing as trees develop a canopy which will eradicate many of the plants.


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