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Life in Freshwater

Succession is concerned with community development over time. Find out more in our general section on Succession

1st Stage of Hydrosere - Migration

At the beginning, like the example of the ball clay, is that the pond is empty. There is only bare, open water.Insects such as Pond Skaters and water beetles might arrive. They have the ability to fly between ponds, especially if their pond is drying up or overcrowded. This immigration might bring spores of other creatures such as diatoms and algae. Microscopic plant and animal material may also get blown in by the wind. A pond drying out stimulates animals like the hydra, amoeba, filamentous algae and diatoms to reproduce sexually. This results in a few hardy structures able to survive drought. They are well protected and are genetically different to the parent with a greater chance of survival.

Herons and ducks will visit the water in hope of food. In the process they may carry seeds of plants and eggs of animals. These will stick to the legs and feathers, especially if they have been treading in the mud of a well established pond before arrival.

If there is an inflow of water to the pond that too will bring in new organisms propagules.

This migration happens immediately and never ceases. Within a week there could be a whole host of new beasts within the open water.



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The FSC offers a range of publications, courses for schools and colleges and courses for adults, families and professionals that relate to the freshwater environment. Why not find out more about the FSC?

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